Pre-20th Century Conflict

From the Battle of Agincourt to Spion Kop, pre-20th century British military history is littered with conflicts that continue to enthrall. Explore them here with news, reviews, features, events, resources, websites and much more drawn from UK museums, galleries, archives and heritage sites.

A photo of a yellowed sheet of paper telling the story of Newark during the English Civil War

Object of the Week: The news sheets relating the King's surrender days after the fall of Newark in the English Civil War

In May 1646, news sheets - now held in the town's National Civil War - confirmed that Newark had been taken during a Civil War clash between the Parliamentary and Royalist forces.

A photo of a suit of armour worn by King James the Second held at the royal armouries

Object of the Week: King James II's 17kg suit of armour and helmet, made in 1686

Costing £100 and delivered in December 1686, James II’s harquebusier’s armour was the last suit of armour made for a British monarch. The helmet alone weighs more than 3kg.

A photo of a surgical instrument from the British Civil War at the National Civil War Centre

Muskets, dysentry, bullet extractors and bone saws: The medical breakthroughs of the British Civil Wars

Soldiers in the Civil Wars were treated with bullet extractors, bone saws and skull elevators before the age of anaesthetic. But it was also a time when surgeons could experiment.

a photo of a skull from the battle of culloden in scotland

Mysterious Culloden skull could have belonged to battlefield casualty who was charging forward or on hands and knees

A top section of a skull which has undergone 3D remodelling probably belonged to someone killed on the battlefield in a bloody meeting between the Highlanders and the King's troops in 1746.

A photo of the brown wooden wheelchair of Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Commander-in-Chief of the Civil War Parliamentarians

Object of the Week: The wheelchair of Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Commander-in-Chief of the Civil War Parliamentarians

Sir Thomas Fairfax led from the front during the 17th century Civil War, including suffering wounds 18 times and being shot in the shoulder in Yorkshire. He used this wheelchair during his......

A photo of ancient artefacts found by archaeologists at the Killiecrankie Battlefield in Scotland

Guns and armour discovered at Scottish battlefield where Jacobites routed government more than 300 years ago

A musket, worn pistol balls and part of a sword belt from a battle which killed a Jacobite leader in combat with William of Orange's forces have been found at Killiecrankie Battlefield.

A photo of a buggy from the 19th century American Civil War at the Ulster Museum in Belfast

Object of the Week: An American Civil War buggy owned by a priest from Armagh

Father Arthur Michael McGinnis, who was ordained a Roman Catholic priest and sent to the small town of Gettysburg during the 19th century, owned this buggy, pre-dating the Civil War he witnessed.

A photo of a box of letters and books once owned by florence nightingale

Florence Nightingale's letter about "vision" which called her to nursing set for first display in public

An unseen letter from Florence Nightingale detailing the inspiration which called her to pursue her nursing career has been uncovered in a former family home in Cornwall.

a photo of of the hull of the Mary Rose in Portsmouth

Mary Rose Museum to re-open in 2016 with "best ever", "unrestricted" views of ship

The best ever view of the Mary Rose hull since her raising in 1982 is promised when the Mary Rose Museum re-opens in late summer 2016.

See some of the bizarre and brilliant drawings from the huge new French Revolution Digital Archive

From the Storming of the Bastille and Louis XVI to the abolition of the slave trade and Marie Antoinette portrayed as a harpy, Stanford and the French National Library's new database of drawings from ......

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